AISI 321 Stainless Steel

Mục lục

Stainless steels are among the most versatile and widely used materials in various industries due to their exceptional properties. Among these, AISI 321 stainless steel stands out for its specific advantages and applications. This guide provides an in-depth look at AISI 321 stainless steel, covering everything from its composition to its practical applications, advantages, and limitations.

Overview of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

AISI 321 stainless steel is an austenitic stainless steel containing titanium, which offers excellent resistance to corrosion and high-temperature environments. It is particularly known for its stability against intergranular corrosion, making it a popular choice in industries where such conditions are prevalent.

Key Details

  • Grade: AISI 321
  • Type: Austenitic Stainless Steel
  • Chemical Composition: Chromium, Nickel, Titanium
  • Applications: Aerospace, Chemical Processing, Thermal Processing, etc.
  • Properties: Corrosion resistance, High-temperature stability, Good mechanical properties

Table: Composition and Properties of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

Nguyên tốComposition (%)Properties
Crôm (Cr)17.0 – 19.0Provides corrosion resistance
Niken (Ni)9.0 – 12.0Adds toughness and ductility
Titanium (Ti)0.7 – 1.2Stabilizes against intergranular corrosion
Carbon (C)0.08 maxEnhances hardness
Manganse (Mn)2.0 maxImproves hot working properties
Silicon (Si)0.75 maxIncreases oxidation resistance
Phốt pho (P)0.045 maxMust be kept low to avoid embrittlement
Lưu huỳnh (S)0.03 maxShould be minimized for improved ductility
AISI 321 Stainless Steel

Applications of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

AISI 321 stainless steel is used across a variety of industries due to its unique properties. Here’s a closer look at some of the common applications.

Ngành công nghiệpỨng dụng
Không gianJet engine parts, exhaust systems
Xử lý hóa chấtChemical reactors, heat exchangers
Thermal ProcessingFurnace components, thermal oxidizers
Oil and GasPiping, heat exchangers in refineries
Ô tôManifolds, exhaust systems
Chế biến thực phẩmFood processing equipment
Power GenerationBoiler tubes, superheater tubes

Specifications, Sizes, and Standards

AISI 321 stainless steel comes in various specifications and sizes to meet different industrial needs. Standards ensure the material meets specific quality requirements.

SpecificationSize (mm)Standard
Plate6.0 – 150ASTM A240, EN 10088-2
Sheet0.5 – 6.0ASTM A240, EN 10088-2
Bar3.0 – 100ASTM A276, EN 10088-3
Pipe10 – 200ASTM A312, EN 10216-5
Tubing6.0 – 50.0ASTM A213, EN 10216-5

Suppliers and Pricing Details

The cost of AISI 321 stainless steel can vary depending on the supplier, the form of the material, and market conditions. Here are some typical suppliers and pricing ranges.

Nhà cung cấpFormPhạm vi giá (theo kg)
ThyssenKruppPlate, Sheet, Bar$3.50 – $5.00
OutokumpuPipe, Tubing$4.00 – $6.00
AcerinoxPlate, Sheet$3.75 – $5.25
Sandvik MaterialsBar, Tubing$4.25 – $6.50
Nippon SteelSheet, Bar$3.80 – $5.10

Advantages of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

AISI 321 stainless steel offers numerous advantages, making it a preferred choice in various applications.

Khả năng chống ăn mòn

One of the standout features of AISI 321 is its resistance to corrosion. This is largely due to the presence of chromium, which forms a passive film on the steel surface, protecting it from rust and other forms of corrosion. The addition of titanium further stabilizes the alloy, preventing the formation of chromium carbides which can lead to intergranular corrosion.

High-Temperature Stability

AISI 321 is particularly known for its performance in high-temperature environments. The titanium addition ensures that the steel maintains its strength and structural integrity even at elevated temperatures. This makes it an excellent choice for applications like exhaust systems and furnace components where heat resistance is crucial.

Tính Chất Cơ Học

AISI 321 stainless steel boasts good mechanical properties, including high tensile strength and good ductility. This makes it easy to form and fabricate, which is an important consideration in manufacturing and construction.

Khả năng chống ăn mònExcellent protection against rust and intergranular corrosion
High-Temperature StabilityMaintains strength and integrity at elevated temperatures
Good Mechanical PropertiesHigh tensile strength, good ductility, and ease of fabrication
Oxidation ResistanceResistant to oxidation at temperatures up to 900°C
Ease of WeldingCan be welded without loss of corrosion resistance

Disadvantages of AISI 321 Stainless Steel

While AISI 321 stainless steel offers many benefits, it is not without its drawbacks.

Chi phí

One of the primary disadvantages is the cost. AISI 321 stainless steel is more expensive compared to some other stainless steel grades, such as 304. This higher cost can be a limiting factor in its use, especially in cost-sensitive applications.


Although widely used, AISI 321 may not be as readily available as other more common stainless steels. This can lead to longer lead times and higher costs for procurement.

Welding Considerations

While AISI 321 stainless steel can be welded, the presence of titanium requires careful control of welding parameters to avoid issues like weld decay. Specialized techniques and filler materials may be needed to ensure the integrity of the welded joints.

Higher CostMore expensive compared to other stainless steel grades
Limited AvailabilityMay not be as readily available as more common grades like 304 or 316
Welding ComplexityRequires careful control of welding parameters and specialized filler materials

Comparison with Other Stainless Steels

How does AISI 321 stack up against other common stainless steels? Let’s compare it with some popular grades like AISI 304 and AISI 316.

AISI 321 vs. AISI 304

AISI 304 is the most widely used stainless steel, known for its good corrosion resistance and formability. However, AISI 321 offers better resistance to intergranular corrosion and is more suitable for high-temperature applications. On the downside, AISI 321 is more expensive.

AISI 321 vs. AISI 316

AISI 316 contains molybdenum, which enhances its resistance to chlorides and makes it suitable for marine environments. Compared to AISI 321, AISI 316 offers better corrosion resistance in saline environments but lacks the high-temperature stability that AISI 321 provides. Cost-wise, AISI 316 is generally more expensive due to the molybdenum content.

PropertyAISI 321AISI 304AISI 316
Khả năng chống ăn mònHighTrung bìnhRất cao
High-Temperature StabilityTuyệt vờiTrung bìnhTốt
Chi phíHighTrung bìnhCao hơn
Welding ConsiderationsComplexSimpleTrung bình
Chloride ResistanceTrung bìnhThấpRất cao
AISI 321 Stainless Steel


What is AISI 321 stainless steel?

AISI 321 (also known as S32100 or 1.4541) is a type of austenitic stainless steel with a small amount of titanium added. This addition makes it more resistant to corrosion at high temperatures than standard 304 stainless steel.

What are the key properties of AISI 321?

  • Excellent corrosion resistance: AISI 321 resists pitting, crevice corrosion, and intergranular corrosion, even at elevated temperatures.
  • Good high-temperature performance: It can maintain its strength and resist oxidation up to 900°C (1600°F).
  • Good formability and weldability: Like other austenitic steels, AISI 321 is easy to form and weld, and doesn’t require post-weld annealing.
  • Toughness at low temperatures: It retains good toughness even in cryogenic conditions.

What are some applications of AISI 321?

  • Aerospace: Exhaust systems, heat exchangers
  • Automotive: Catalytic converters, exhaust manifolds
  • Chemical processing: Equipment handling corrosive chemicals
  • Oil and gas refining: Equipment exposed to high temperatures
  • Heat exchangers
  • Power generation

What are some limitations of AISI 321?

  • Not ideal for polishing: The titanium makes it harder to achieve a bright, polished finish, so it’s not a good choice for cosmetic applications.
  • Not recommended as welding filler: The titanium doesn’t transfer well across a weld zone. AISI 347 is preferred for welding 321 due to its similar properties and better weldability.

How does AISI 321 compare to AISI 304?

AISI 304 is a similar austenitic stainless steel without the titanium addition. It’s less resistant to high-temperature corrosion than 321, but it is cheaper and polishes better.

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